Diagnosis and Staging treatment options next steps Other Diseases of the Prostate

What are the other diseases that affect the prostate?

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

BPH is an increased growth of cells within the prostate.  It DOES NOT lead to cancer.  It begins at different ages, in different men, but it eventually occurs in almost all men.  The major consequence of this enlargement is that the urethra in the middle of the prostate is squeezed.  Consequently the man will often experience difficulty passing urine, a slowing of the urinary stream, a need to urinate more frequently, and an inability to empty the bladder completely.  Some of these symptoms are also related to aging of the bladder itself.  Almost all men will eventually develop these symptoms to some extent as part of the aging process.

BPH may also cause blood to appear in the urine.  This is because as the prostate grows, blood vessels surrounding the prostate get very stretched and thinned and bleed easily.

BPH is watched and not treated in mild cases.  If it needs treatment, drugs of several different types can be used.  In more severe cases, the prostatic tissue causing the narrowing can be surgically removed.  This procedure is called a TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate). Other therapies are currently being evaluated


This is an infection of the prostate.  It can be acute or chronic.

Acute Prostatitis

This is an illness with symptoms that include a high fever, severe burning on urination, an increase in urination frequency and a general feeling of being sick.  It is treated with intravenous and usually responds well.

Chronic Prostatitis

This is the more common of the two.  The symptoms include burning on urination, discomfort in the pelvic area, pain with ejaculation, and more frequent urination.  There is no fever, and no feeling of being sick.  Symptoms can go on for months, or even years and are often don’t respond to treatment with oral antibiotics.  Indeed most cases are not infectious.

Both of these types of infection can cause the PSA to rise to very high levels.  The PSA should fall with antibiotic therapy.  Because it is often difficult to diagnose, a biopsy is occasionally needed to rule out cancer.

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